The first two questions face anyone who cares to distinguish the real from the unreal and the true from the false. The third question faces anyone who makes any decisions at all, and even not deciding is itself a decision.
Physiologicalpsychologicaland philosophical approaches Motivation has been studied in a variety of ways. For instance, it has been analyzed at the physiological level using electrical and chemical stimulation of the brainthe recording of electrical brain-wave activity with the electroencephalograph, and lesion techniques, where a portion of the brain usually of a laboratory animal is destroyed and subsequent changes in motivation are noted.
Physiological studies performed primarily on animals other than humans have demonstrated the importance of certain brain structures in the control of basic motives such as hunger, thirst, sex, aggression, and fear. Motivation may also be analyzed at the individual psychological level.
Such analyses attempt to understand why people act in particular ways and seek to draw general conclusions from individual cases. Through studies of individuals, for example, it has been found that both men and women proceed through a series of identifiable stages of arousal during behaviours leading to and culminating in sexual intercourse.
The finding may be applied to people in general. Motivation of an individual is also influenced by the presence of other people. Social psychologists have been active in discovering how the presence of others in a given situation influences motivation.
For example, students and teachers behave in predictable ways in the classroom. Those behaviours are often quite different, however, from the way students and teachers behave outside the classroom. Studies of conformity, obedience, and helping behaviours which benefit others without reward are three areas in this field that have received considerable attention.
Finally, motivation is sometimes also approached from a more philosophical direction. That is, analyses of motivation are understood, at least in part, by examining the particular philosophical point of view espoused by the theorist.
For example, some motivational theorists conceive motivation to be an aversive state: Other theorists see motivation as a much more positive experience.
That is, motivation can produce behaviours that lead to increases in future motivation. The American psychologist Abraham H. Debates in motivational study The nomothetic versus ideographic approach However motivation is studied, certain fundamental debates have typified the positions taken by researchers.
One such debate concerns the question of whether it is better to study groups of individuals and attempt to draw general conclusions termed the nomothetic approach or to study the behaviours that make individuals unique termed the idiographic approach.
Although both approaches have added to the understanding of motivational processes, the nomothetic approach has dominated motivational research. Innate versus acquired processes A second debate among theorists concerns the degree to which motivational processes are innate genetically programmed versus acquired learned.
Since the s this debate has swung from one extreme to the other and then back toward the middle. Early approaches viewed motivation as largely or entirely instinctive.Motivation is the reason for people's actions, willingness and alphabetnyc.comtion is derived from the word motive which is defined as a need that requires satisfaction.
These needs could also be wants or desires that are acquired through influence of culture, society, lifestyle, etc. or generally innate.
Motivation is one's direction to behavior, or what causes a person to want to repeat a. What is the Meaning of Self-Determination Theory? Self-Determination Theory, or SDT, is a theory that links personality, human motivation, and optimal functioning.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory in psychology comprising a five-tier model of human needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid. Application Of Game Theory In Real Life Just think, look around you and you will discover so much.
Marina Ri Marina Ri Aug 8, views. views. comments. What is Game Theory? This is an example of game theory that has happened often enough to become a trend in urban neighborhoods.
Jun 30, · Expectancy theory may be confused with, or linked to, extrinsic motivation, because in both cases, employees engage in actions and behavior to produce a desirable outcome.
Extrinsic motivation, however, is the underlying reason that an employee performs the job or adopts a type of behavior. The academic standard for texts on motivation in educational settings. Clear and engaging, Motivation in Education: Theory, Research, and Applications, Fourth Edition presents the major motivation theories, principles, and research findings in sufficient detail to help students understand the complexity of motivational processes, and provide it provides extensive examples of the application of.