His death sparked a conflagration that raged from North Africa to the Levant and all the way to the Gulf.
Despite the achievements of hardwon sovereignty and the establishment of liberal institutions followingthe country faced numerous obstacles to democratic consolidation. Bitter social conflicts, aggravated by a deep sense of insecurity among the Syrian population, in combination with economic disparities and military intervention, led to the destabilization of the state.
During its formative years, the country was not immune to anti-colonial and social unrest and Cold War rivalries. As a means to overcome these challenges, the young democracy embarked on a path of defensive modernization elevating the army to political power.
Particular importance is attributed to the birth of a new middle class, radicalized by political parties directed against oligarchy and imperialism. This paper assumes that the democratic breakdown in Syria can be seen as a consequence of both internal developments and external pressures.
Key Words Democratic breakdown, post-independence Syria, United Arab Republic, defensive modernization, political legitimacy. After centuries of colonial domination, the government was expected to efficiently perform its function of providing territorial and social security.
As Linz and Stepan point out: Foreign economic competition, regional conflicts end and Cold War rivalry added further strain to the already arduous task of forming a stable and responsive government. Bitter conflicts provoked by social disparities led to the destabilization of the state.
Post-independence elites, pan- Arabs, Nasserists and socialist parties — all competed to shape the pathway of Syrian political and economic development. There are various interpretations of the reasons behind the democratic breakdown in Syria.
Such focus on international conspiracies is criticized by Heydemann. It argues that a simultaneous calculus of external threats and internal division brought the regime down.
After the West supported the formation of Israel and the Suez war, Syrian enmity towards the West became even stronger and the Soviet Union gradually began to counter Western influence in Syria.
Instead, I analyze the factors that allowed for the coup to occur and that led indirectly to authoritarianism.Egypt: President Hosni Mubarak ousted, arrested, charged, Egypt, Yemen, Syria and Bahrain, where either the regime was toppled or major uprisings and social violence occurred, including riots, Some have referred to the succeeding and still ongoing conflicts as the Arab Winter.
In order to identify the reasons behind the fall of Syria’s democracy, this paper analyses factors such as: social conflict, institutional weakness, the rise of radical parties, the politicization of the military and the role of an unfavorable external environment.
Syria and Egypt: Two Counterrevolutions in Action Western leaders still grossly distort what’s going on in Egypt.
It’s really no better than what happens in Syria. Revolution Update in Syria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt May 3, -- According to the UN Envoy for Syria, an estimated , Syrians have been killed since an uprising in March spiraled into civil war.
One such example is in Egypt and Syria. Therefore, the question that always arises in our mind, is democracy still relevant in our society?
Based on the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, Democracy means a system of government in which everyone in . The Arab Spring was largely drowned in blood (Syria, Egypt, Libya), but democracy really seemed to be taking root in Southeast Asia – for a while. in Southeast Asia and elsewhere, is still.