Sadly, some of the products on their shelves are a waste of money -- regardless how cheap. Katie Curtis of Logan, Ohio, posted a picture on Facebook of her 3-year-old holding a dollar-store imitation Barbie that was dismembered in less than 10 minutes. Dollar-store toys are not only poorly made -- they may be safety hazards. Several toys from these chains have been recalled in the past:
The fire tetrahedron The fire tetrahedron represents the addition of a component in the chemical chain reaction, to the three already present in the fire triangle. Once a fire has started, the resulting exothermic chain reaction sustains the fire and allows it to continue until or unless at least one of the elements of the fire is blocked.
Foam can be used to deny the fire the oxygen it needs. Water can be used to lower the temperature of the fuel below the ignition point or to remove or disperse the fuel. Halon can be used to remove free radicals and create a barrier of inert gas in a direct attack on the chemical reaction responsible for the fire.
When the fire involves burning metals like lithiummagnesiumtitanium etc. The metals react faster with water than with oxygen and thereby more energy is released. Putting water on such a fire results in the fire getting hotter or even exploding.
Carbon dioxide extinguishers are ineffective against certain metals such as titanium. In the same way, as soon as one of the four elements of the tetrahedron is removed, combustion stops. Oxidizer[ edit ] The oxidizer is the other reactant of the chemical reaction.
In most cases, it is the ambient air, and in particular one of its components, oxygen O2. By depriving a fire of air, it can be extinguished; for example, when covering the flame of a small candle with an empty glass, fire stops; to the contrary, if air is blown over a wood fire with bellowsthe fire is activated by the introduction of more air.
In certain torches, gaseous oxygen is introduced to improve combustion. Some chemicals, such as fluorine gas, perchlorate salts such as ammonium perchlorateor chlorine trifluorideact as oxidisers, sometimes more powerful ones than oxygen itself.
A fire based on a reaction with these oxidisers can be very difficult to put out until the oxidiser is exhausted; that leg of the fire triangle cannot be broken by normal means i.
In certain cases such as some explosives, the oxidizer and combustible are the same e. Reaction is initiated by an activating energy, in most cases, it is heat. Several examples include friction, as in case of matches, heating an electrical wire, a flame propagation of fireor a spark from a lighter or from any starting electrical device.
There are also many other ways to bring sufficient activation energy including electricity, radiation, and pressure, all of which will lead to a temperature rise. In most cases, heat production enables self-sustainability of the reaction, and enables a chain reaction to grow. The temperature at which a liquid produces sufficient vapor to get a flammable mix with self-sustainable combustion is called its flash-point.
Extinction of the fire[ edit ] To stop a combustion reaction, one of the three elements of the fire-triangle has to be removed. Without sufficient heat, a fire cannot begin, and it cannot continue.
Heat can be removed by the application of a substance which reduces the amount of heat available to the fire reaction. This is often water, which absorbs heat for phase change from water to steam.
Introducing sufficient quantities and types of powder or gas in the flame reduces the amount of heat available for the fire reaction in the same manner. Scraping embers from a burning structure also removes the heat source.
Turning off the electricity in an electrical fire removes the ignition source. Without fuel, a fire will stop. Fuel can be removed naturally, as where the fire has consumed all the burnable fuel, or manually, by mechanically or chemically removing the fuel from the fire.
Fuel separation is an important factor in wildland fire suppression, and is the basis for most major tactics, such as controlled burns. The fire stops because a lower concentration of fuel vapor in the flame leads to a decrease in energy release and a lower temperature.
Removing the fuel thereby decreases the heat.
Without sufficient oxygen, a fire cannot begin, and it cannot continue. With a decreased oxygen concentration, the combustion process slows.
Oxygen can be denied to a fire using a carbon dioxide fire extinguishera fire blanket or water. Role of water in fire-fighting[ edit ] Water can have two different roles. In the case of a solid combustible, the solid fuel produce pyrolyzing products under the influence of heat, commonly radiation.
This process is halted by the application of water, since water is more easily evaporated than the fuel is pyrolyzed. Thereby energy is removed from the fuel surface and it is cooled and the pyrolysis is stopped, removing the fuel supply to the flames. In fire fighting, this is referred to as surface cooling.A certain impoverished lady I know can frequently be heard repeating the refrain "Toilet paper isn't a luxury".
I have to bite my tongue every time I hear her say that, because, frankly, toilet paper is a luxury.
As they follow an itinerary that takes them to the south of France, the Pyramids, the Taj Mahal, the Himalayas and Hong Kong. II. ANALYSIS AND REACTION A.
ANALYSIS When Carter begins writing a "bucket list", or things to do before he "kicks the bucket" or dies. After hearing he has less than a year, Carter discards the list. The old adage "you get what you pay for" certainly applies to dollar-store toys.
While a $1 price tag seems like a low-cost way to give your child a treat or add to the stash for a nephew's birthday, don't bother. Katie Curtis of Logan, Ohio, posted a picture on Facebook of her 3-year-old holding a dollar-store imitation Barbie that was .
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