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Variables affecting conformity including group size, unanimity and task difficulty as investigated by Asch. Conformity to social roles as investigated by Zimbardo. Dispositional explanation for obedience: Explanations of resistance to social influence, including social support and locus of control.
Minority influence including reference to consistency, commitment and flexibility. The role of social influence processes in social change. It is also known as majority influence. The individual changes their views, but it is a temporary change.
For example a person may laugh at a joke because their group of friends find it funny but deep down the person does not find the joke funny.
For a study on compliance refer to Asch. Internalisation AO1 Publicly changing behavior to fit in with the group while also agreeing with them privately.
An internal private and external public change of behavior. For a study on internalisation refer to Jenness see below. Identification AO1 Identification occurs when someone conforms to the demands of a given social role in society.
For example, a policeman, teacher or politician. This type of conformity extends over several aspects of external behavior. However, there still be no changed to internal personal opinion.
The study of minority influence began as reaction to the portrayal of influence as the province of status and numbers and from a realization that minorities need not just be passive recipients of influence but can actively persuade. From these beginnings, a considerable body of research, including ours, has investigated how minority views prevail. cross-level link between indirect minority influence and social change. Indirect minority influence Social psychological mechanisms for minority influence were most prominently proposed by Moscovici (, , ; Moscovici & Faucheux, ). Conversion theory (Moscovici. Initially, Moscovici's conversion theory of minority influence began as a minority opinion that was rejected by many researchers, but eventually members of opposition validated it, thus confirming the theory's exact predictions. Asch's studies highlighted the power that majorities have over groups and their subsequent conformity, but Moscovici was more interested in the power exerted by minorities.
A good example is Zimbardo's prison study. For example a person may feel pressurised to smoke because the rest of their friends are. Normative influence tends to lead to compliance because the person smokes just for show but deep down they wish not to smoke.
This means any change of behavior is temporary.
For a study on normative influence refer to Asch. This explanation tends to lead to internalisation. An example of this is if someone was to go to a posh restaurant for the first time, they may be confronted with several forks and not know which one to use, so they might look to a near by person to see what fork to use first.
For a study on informational influence refer to Jenness see below. Each participant had to make an individual estimate, and then do the same as a group. He found that when the task was carried out in a social group, the participants would report estimates of roughly the same value even though they had previously reported quite different estimates as individuals.
The study was successful in showing majority influence, thus proving that individuals' behavior and beliefs can be influenced by a group.
Additionally this is likely to be an example of informational social influence as participants would be uncertain about the actual number of beans in the jar.
Each group was presented with a standard line and three comparison lines. Participants had to say aloud which comparison line matched the standard line in length.
In each group there was only one true participant the remaining 6 were confederates. The confederates were told to give the incorrect answer on 12 out of 18 trails.Minority influence interacts with various situational factors such as social identity (in-group or out-group) and the task employed (e.g., objective or opinion) leading to different kinds of.
Oct 23, · "The message must be perceived as coherent, different, plausible, natural, corresponding to reality, and objective," wrote Serge Moscovici in his "Social influence and conformity" in the Handbook. Moscovici, a social psychologist, emphasized the role of minority influence.
If nothing ever changed, if the majority always ruled, then we would all still be living in caves and eating raw. just how the targets of influence respond to a given minority perspective, which is often the focus in the minority influence paradigm, but also whether and how the minority opinion holder would be willing to express that unique perspective during the group discussion.
Likewise, past . Minority Influence Minority influence occurs when a smaller group over time is able to persuade the majority to join their side.
A type of social influence, this topic was researched in depth by Moscovici. cross-level link between indirect minority influence and social change. Indirect minority influence Social psychological mechanisms for minority influence were most prominently proposed by Moscovici (, , ; Moscovici & Faucheux, ).
Conversion theory (Moscovici.